The Lunar Library Contains Data Embedded Into Nickel

In 2018, the Arch Mission Basis was an archive in Elon Musk’s glove compartment. The archive contained Isaac Asimov’s Basis trilogy, inscribed in a quartz disk that uses experimental 5D optical technology. But this method of storing important data has some limitations.

The storage methods we use nowadays are useful for compressing data but, unfortunately, they are not very durable. In the past, people thought VHS tapes were going to keep their popularity forever, but how many people do you know now that uses them? Therefore, the most efficient and durable method of storing data is analog.

Even if analog storage is most probably the best solution, it has its own mild inconveniences. For example, analog storage takes up a good amount of room, so sending a big amount of information would require a lot of compressions.

Bruce Ha is a scientist that found a way to engrave high-resolution, nano-scale pictures into nickel. The process requires lasers that etch the pictures into glass, then places a layer of nickel, atom by atom, on top.

The Beresheet lander has a lunar library made up of 25 layers of nickels. The first four layers contain around 30,000 high-resolution pictures of e-book pages, which include language primers, textbooks, and hints to decoding the remaining 21 layers. These layers contain precious information, for example almost all of the English Wikipedia, 1000’s of traditional books, and even David Copperfield’s magic tips.

Between the nickel layers, scientists placed thin layers of epoxy resin, into which they hid hair follicles and blood samples to signify the human ancestry.

Tardigrades were also added in the epoxy resin layers. They are extremely small creatures that can enter dormant stages of dehydration, with the possibility of being revived in the future.

The Rare “Extraterrestrial Mud Ball” – Researchers Studied the Meteorite That Fell in Costa Rica

Back in April, residents in Aguas Zarcas, a small town in Costa Rica, witnessed a “large fireball in the sky” approaching the city. It was a meteorite the size of a washing machine, but before hitting the ground, it broke into small pieces, raining over the city.

Scientists classified it as an “extraterrestrial mud ball,” and are still studying the pieces that were recovered. One of the pieces crashed through a resident’s roof, breaking his dining table! The rock weighed around two pounds.

Why is this meteoroid so important for scientists?

In a recent press release, the Arizona State University explains why these alien ‘mud balls’ are so important: this meteorite belongs to a special group called “carbonaceous chondrites” that are rich in organic compounds and full of water.”

Laurence Garvie is a research professor in the School of Earth and Space Exploration. He explained that “many carbonaceous chondrites are mud balls that are between 80 and 95% clay.”

But what makes clays important is the water, that is “an integral part of their structure,” added Garvie, who is also a curator for Arizona State University’s Center for Meteorite Studies.

Scientists were able to recover 55 pounds of meteorites before rainfall could destroy them. They want to continue their research, and Professor Garvie and his team have already learned a bit about its origins:

“It formed in an environment free of life, then was preserved in the cold and vacuum of space for 4.56 billion years and then dropped in Costa Rica.”

The last carbonaceous chondrites meteorite to land on Earth was 50 years ago – in Australia in 1969.

Center Director Meenakshi Wadhwa noted that these rare meteorites are among the most sought-after alien rocks by researchers because they “contain the best-preserved clues to the origin of the solar system,” adding that this new meteorite is significant for their collection.

New Dinosaur Species Discovered Shows The Creature Had Membranous Bat-like Wings

In 2017, a farmer from northeastern China (Wubaiding village) found a fossil that turned out to belong to a dinosaur. But Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Min Wang knew there was something special about this specimen.

After a complete analysis, Wang and his co-authors reached an exciting conclusion: this was a new type of dinosaur. In their paper titled “A new Jurassic scansoriopterygid and the loss of membranous wings in theropod dinosaurs,” published on May 8th in Nature, they added details about the creature’s body.

Wang looked at the remains and noticed traces of quills on the dinosaur’s neck. It had a stubby tail, but what really made him shout was when he saw the left arm: “I shouted, and my heartbeat elevated.”

Two Bat-Winged Dinosaurs

Wang realized that he was looking at a bat-winged dinosaur! Should we just call it a dragon? The scientist named the new species “Ambopteryx longibranchium” which stands for “both wings, long upper arm” in Latin.

However, there was another bat-winged dinosaur also discovered by a farmer in northeastern China. This one was described by Xing Xu and Xiaoting Zheng in 2015 and received the name Yi qi, which stands for “strange wing” in Mandarin.

The two discoveries are essential for learning more about prehistoric flight – and it adds proof to the evolution of dinosaurs that slowly grew fuzz, feathers, and then wings, giving rise to birds.

Talking about this fantastic discovery, paleontologist Michael Habib (the University of Southern California) concluded that “paleontologists have hoped that something similar might show itself to either confirm or refute the interpretation of Yi qi.” Thankfully, it was the latter.

However, the Ambopteryx-style wing was part of the evolution that didn’t leave descendants. Instead, Pterosaurs thrived with the leathery wings that evolved into the feathered wing to later be seen in today’s dinosaurs, the birds.

The Economic Impact of Melting Permafrost in the Arctic is set to $70 trillion

A study on the impact of melting ice coats in the Arctic that has been conducted by Dimitry Yumashev and a team of researchers at Lancaster University, was published on the journal Nature Communications on April 23. The study is entitled “Climate policy implications of nonlinear decline of Arctic land permafrost and other cryosphere elements”, and its conclusion was that a growth in the cost of global warming could happen as there is an increase of carbon dioxide and methane from the melting permafrost, mixed with extra absorption of heat from the sun as a result of sea ice mirroring sunlight away from the surface of the Earth. The cost could go up to $70 trillion.

This study is the first to measure the economic effect of permafrost melt and lowered albedo (a measure of how much light hitting the surface is mirrored without being consumed), based on the most advanced computer patterns of what is probably going to happen in the Arctic as temperatures are increasing, and it reveals how weaken natural systems will aggravate the issue caused by man-made discharges, making it more challenging and expensive to deal with.

A Lack Of Urgency is Prevailing

Even at 1.5 C to 2 C, there are effects and expenses because of the melting permafrost, but the temperatures are significantly lower for this synopsis compared to business like always. The disheartening thing is that we have the technology and policy tools to limit the warming but we are not moving quick enough, Yumashev said.

The one good thing that can be found in the study is that the impact from the thawing permafrost and absence of sea ice could possibly be a little it lower than prior predictions. However, this is not a reason to have contended because the study has an amount of uncertainty because even at the bottom point, the casualties are enormous.

If the researchers’ predictions are accurate, the economic cost of climate change will eventually add up to hundreds of trillions of dollars, and a bit of prevention today could save countless amounts of money in the future, reduce human suffering and loss of life that will ultimately hold a warmer planet.

NASA arrives at Phrase C in its scheduled mission to asteroid 16 Psyche

With less than a month separating us from a key aspect of review approval, released data on the NASA’s “16 Psyche” mission is becoming clearer. The expedition’s goal is to get close to an asteroid named 16 Psyche in our local main asteroid belt, which, because of the metal it holds, is worth approximately $100,000 quadrillion USD​. Similar to the mission’s signature, the spacecraft’s name is “The Psyche”. The capsule was inspected in a five-day evaluation by Maxar Technologies, at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, being a basic design review, later confirmed that the craft’s design fulfills agency’s demands for the mission.

This assignment will be a huge partnership between NASA’s JPL, Arizona State University’s School of Earth and Space Exploration, as well as Maxar Technologies. Those involved in the mission will study the asteroid’s structure as well as its incredibly valuable metal.

However, the missions’ goal isn’t to extract the asteroid’s valuable metals but to conclude the probability that 16 Psyche is the heart of a planet-sized object, for the former hypothesis was that the asteroid was the center of a planet the size of Mars.

The theoretical work for this expedition started back in 2016, and introductory designs were revealed through the year 2017 and into 2019. The Final Design is next and then Subsystem Fabrication​, Assembly, and the Test Phase stage​. It is anticipated that Instrument and Spacecraft Assembly and Test will begin in early 2021.

The Psyche capsule is due to be sent to its launch site at Cape Canaveral Air Force Base in Florida in the earlier half of the year 2020, and the mission’s official launch is expected to happen in August of 2020.

The expedition is in its final design and fabrication stages at the moment, and more news will be revealed sometime in May, the year 2019.